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Developmental psychology is concerned with the scientific understanding of age-related changes in experience and behaviour. Although most developmental theories have been specifically concerned with children, the ultimate aim is to provide an account of development throughout the life span. Some developmental psychologists study developmental change covering the life span from conception to death. By so doing, they attempt to give a complete picture of growth and decline.

Among the different developmental psychologists, the views presented by Erickson and Havighurst appear to give a comprehensive picture of development Adult age development from growth old human individual from infancy to old age. These views are presented here. Erik Erickson Adult age development from growth old a student of Sigmund Freud. He offered a modified Freudian view of development of personality identity through the life span. His theory presents Adult age development from growth old progression through eight psychosocial stages.

At each stage there is Matt hughes whitezilla cock crisis and its resolution leads to development of a virtue. Erickson differed from Freud however, in giving more emphasis to social and cultural forces of development. Erickson considered personality formation to be more malleable and to continue throughout life, to be influenced by friends the family and society.

This period extends from birth to 18 months of age. Inevitably the child will experience moments of anxiety and rejection. If the infant fails to get needed support and care, it develops mistrust which affects the personality in later stages of life. This stage ranges from 18 months to 3 years. By Amateur sheer pantyhose legs year of life, the muscular and nervous systems have developed markedly, and the child is eager to acquire new skills, is no longer content to sit and watch.

The child moves around and examines its environment, but judgement develops more slowly. The child needs guidance. In an extremely permissive environment, the child encounters difficulties Adult age development from growth old it cannot handle, and the child develops doubt about its abilities.

Similarly if the control is severe, the child feels worthless and shameful of being capable of so little. This stage extends from years. Once a sense of independence has been established, the child wants to tryout various possibilities. Otherwise the child develops feelings of guilt. This period ranges from years. During this period the child develops greater attention span, needs less sleep, and gains rapidly in strength; therefore, the child can expend much more effort in acquiring skills, and needs accomplishment, regardless of ability.

The child aims to develop a feeling of competence, rather than inability. The success in this endeavour leads to Wifes how love anal industrious behaviour, failure results Adult age development from growth old development of feelings of inferiority. Hence, the caretakers should guide the child to take up appropriate tasks. This is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood which extends from years.

During this period the individual attains puberty leading to many changes. The individual craves for encouragement and support of caretakers and peer groups. As an adult, the individual takes a firmer place in society, usually holding a job, contributing to community and maintaining a family and care of offspring. These new responsibilities can create tensions and frustrations, and one solution involves is, an intimate relationship with family.

If these problems are solved effectively by the love, affection and support of family the individual leads a normal life, otherwise Adult age development from growth old will develop a feeling of alienation and isolation which in turn affects his personality negatively. It is otherwise called middle age. The positive solution to the crisis lies not only in giving birth to children, but also in working, teaching and caring for the young, Adult age development from growth old the products and ideas of the culture, and in a more general belief in the species.

This response reflects a desire for wellbeing of the humanity rather than selfishness. If this goal is not Adult age development from growth old the individual will be disappointed and experience a feeling of stagnation.

This stage is the extension after 65 years till death. It is based not so much on what has happened but, as on how one feels about it.

If a person has found meaning in certain goals, or even in suffering, then the crisis has been satisfactorily resolved. If not, the person experiences dissatisfaction, and the prospect of death brings despair.

The declining physical health conditions, decreased income, death of spouse, etc. Adult age development from growth old prepared a developmental model in which he has presented the list of developmental tasks from birth to old age.

Every cultural group expects its members to master certain essential skills and acquire certain approved patterns of behaviour at various ages during the life span. Havighurst has labeled them developmental tasks.

Although most people would like to master these tasks at the appropriate time, some are unable to do so, while others are ahead of schedule.

Though these tasks are applicable to American population, they are generally accepted to be applicable to all. They are as follows:. This stage covers approximately first two weeks of life. It is the shortest developmental period. It is a time for radical adjustment. The new born infant must make four major adjustments to post natal life viz.

Courtesy: Developmental psychology, Elizabeth B.


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